Impacts of Brine and Chemical Discharge
on the Marine Environment

Sabine Lattemann and Thomas Höpner


Publisher's Blurb
Population growth, ongoing industrialisation, land irrigation and higher living standards increase the demand for drinking water. Ground waters are already excessively exploited and at risk of salt water intrusion in coastal areas, while surface waters are scarce or polluted. As good quality raw water becomes less available, water must be purified and augmented by seawater desalination. An introduction to the two main desalting processes is given in this book with an emphasis on vulnerable points in process design and choice of materials. To protect reverse osmosis and multi-stage flash plants from certain types of seawater constituents, chemical pretreatment is required, while cleaning chemicals are used to restore the plants' efficiency. Both procedures are described with regards to the type of foulant. Classification into different groups of chemicals is made, and single chemicals and underlying mechanisms that make them effective additives are described. This book is a courtship for environmental assessments of new desalination plants and it is the first which provides data about the chemical discharges into the sea and their marine ecological effects. Special attention is given to the Arabian Gulf where 50% of worldwide seawater plants operate. This approach takes the Gulf's high installed capacity into account and relates it to the surrounding Gulf ecosystem. Maps of the region are included and an outlook for the future presented


Gis maps included in the book

Arabian Gulf:

MSF and RO plant locations and capacities
Daily copper discharge loads by MSF plants
Daily chlorine discharge loads by MSF Plants
Daily antiscalant discharge loads by MSF & RO plants
Plants in the Bay of Kuwait

Red Sea:
MSF and RO plant locations and capacities
- in the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
- in the southern Red Sea

Plant locations and capacities in the Arabian Gulf
(no larger picture available)

Besides plant locations and capacities, this map shows Mangrove areas and Coral reefs (data purchased from the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre) and water depth (25m, 50m, 75m and 100m isolines)


Ordering infomation
Order at

Published and distributed by
Desalination Publications
Via Antica Arischia 1
L'Aquila 67100

Tel. +39 0862 3475308
Fax: +39 0862 3475213

Distribution in the USA
DEStech Publications
561 Springton Way
Lancaster, PA 17601-1

Tel. +1 717 290 1660
Fax: +1 717 509 6100


ISBN 0-86689-062-9
Hardcover, 142 pages
© 2003 Sabine Lattemann & Thomas Höpner


© 2005 Sabine Lattemann
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